Qué es un contribuyente

What is a contributor?

In the complex web of the tax and fiscal system, the term contributor stands out as one of the fundamental pillars. But who are contributorss really and what is their precise role within this intricate web? We will delve into the essential definition of a contributor, outlining their key characteristics and their importance in the economic and financial structure.

1. What is a contributor?

A contributor is a natural or legal person who is subject to a tax liability, i.e. has a responsibility to pay taxes or fees to the public administration, whether local, regional or national, in accordance with the legislation in force. Taxes can be derived from income, property, purchases, sales, among others.

The determination of who is a contributor and how much they are liable to pay varies by jurisdiction and type of tax. For example:

  • Individuals: Generally refers to individuals, who may pay income taxes, property taxes, sales taxes and others.
  • Legal entities: These are entities such as companies, organisations or corporations that pay taxes on their profits, assets, sales, among others.

The obligation to be a contributor arises from the realisation of a taxable event established by law, such as earning a salary, owning property or making a sale. By paying taxes, contributors finance the state so that it can provide public goods and services to society, such as roads, hospitals, education and security.

2. How does it work in Spain?

In Spain, the tax system is structured at different levels: state, regional and local. Each level has specific powers over certain taxes, and taxpayers’ obligations vary according to the type of tax and the territory.

2.1 At the state level

  • Personal Income Tax (Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Físicas, IRPF): This is a personal and direct tax on the income obtained in a calendar year by individuals resident in Spain.
  • Corporate Income Tax (IS): Taxes the profits of legal entities.
  • Value Added Tax (VAT): This is an indirect tax on consumption. Businessmen and professionals pass it on to the final consumer on the sale of goods and services.
  • Non-Resident Income Tax (IRNR): This tax is levied on income obtained in Spain by non-resident individuals or entities.

2.2 At the autonomous community level (autonomous communities)

Each autonomous community has the power to manage and collect certain taxes and, in some cases, to establish its own rates and deductions. The most relevant are:

  • Inheritance and Gift Tax: Taxes acquisitions by death or donation.
  • Transfer Tax and Stamp Duty: Taxes on onerous transfers of assets, corporate transactions and documented legal acts.
  • Wealth Tax: Taxes the net wealth of individuals.

2.3 At the local level (municipalities and provinces)

  • Real Estate Tax (IBI): Taxes the ownership or possession of real estate.
  • Tax on Motor Vehicles (Impuesto sobre Vehículos de Tracción Mecánica ): Tax on the ownership of vehicles that are roadworthy.
  • Tax on Constructions, Installations and Works (ICIO): This tax is levied on the carrying out of any construction, installation or work.
  • Tax on the Increase in Value of Urban Land (IIVTNU): Tax on the increase in value of land when it is transferred.

To ensure compliance with these obligations, Spain has the State Tax Administration Agency ( AEAT), which is the body responsible for managing the state tax and customs system. However, at regional and local level, there are other entities and bodies responsible for the management and collection of the corresponding taxes.

It is worth mentioning that in certain regions, such as the Basque Country and Navarre, there are foral systems with their own tax powers, which implies differences in the management and collection of some taxes with respect to the general system.

3. Types of contributors in Spain

In Spain, the tax system classifies contributors according to their nature and economic activity. The main types of contributos are:

3.1 Individuals

  • Residents: Those who spend more than 183 days a year in Spanish territory or have in Spain the main base or centre of their activities or economic interests. They are subject to Personal Income Tax (IRPF).
  • Non-Residents: Those individuals who do not meet the residence requirements mentioned above. They are subject to Non-Resident Income Tax (IRNR).

3.2 Legal Entities

  • Residents: These are entities that have their registered office or effective place of management in Spanish territory. They are subject to Corporate Income Tax (IS).
  • Non-residents: Entities that, without being resident in Spain, obtain income in Spanish territory. They are also taxed through the Non-Resident Income Tax (IRNR), but in its modality for entities.

3.3 Entities without legal personality

  • Communities of Property (CB): These arise when several individuals or legal entities own a property or right in joint ownership and decide to administer it jointly. Communities of goods do not have legal personality, but are taxable persons for corporate tax purposes in Spain.
  • Civil Partnerships: If they have a commercial purpose, they are considered taxable persons for corporate income tax purposes; if they do not, their income is attributed to the partners, who will declare it for personal income tax purposes.

3.4 Permanent Establishments

These are fixed establishments through which a non-resident contributor carries out, in whole or in part, a business activity in Spain. They are subject to Non-Resident Income Tax (IRNR), but under the specific regime of permanent establishments.

3.5 Entrepreneurs and Professionals

Those persons, whether individuals or legal entities, who habitually, personally, directly and for profit, carry out an economic activity. They are subject to VAT and, depending on their legal form, to personal income tax or corporate income tax.

These categories represent the general types of contributors in Spain, although there may be subcategories and particularities depending on the tax or the regulations applicable in certain regions, especially in the foral territories such as the Basque Country and Navarre.

4. Characteristics of a contributor

The characteristics of a contributor refer to the qualities or conditions that define and differentiate an entity or individual in the context of the tax system. Although the specifics may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, in general, the characteristics of a contributor include:

  • Nature of the Contributor: This can be a natural person (individual) or legal entity (such as a company, organisation or partnership).
  • Tax Liability: A contributor has a legal responsibility to pay taxes or fees to the state or local government under applicable tax laws.
  • Tax Capacity: Refers to the economic ability of a contributor to pay taxes. Tax laws are often structured so that those with greater economic capacity contribute more.
  • Tax Domicile: The registered place where the contributor carries out its main economic activities and, therefore, has its main tax obligations.
  • Economic Activity: Depending on the economic activity carried out (e.g. trade, services, manufacturing), it may be subject to different tax regimes or types of taxation.
  • Periodicity of Filing: Depending on the jurisdiction and type of tax, the contributor may be required to file monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.
  • Source of Income: Income may come from wages, investments, sales, rents, among others. Each type of income may be subject to different tax treatments.
  • Applicable Benefits and Deductions: Depending on the taxpayer’s personal or business situation, he/she may be entitled to certain deductions, exemptions or tax benefits.
  • Relationship with Third Parties: Contributors may withhold or collect taxes from third parties, acting as withholding or collection agents. For example, an employer withholds income tax from its employees and remits it to the state.
  • Compliance with Ancillary Obligations: In addition to paying taxes, the contributor may have other responsibilities, such as keeping books of account, issuing invoices, submitting information reports, among others.
  • Liability for Violations: In case of non-compliance or tax evasion, the contributor may be subject to penalties, fines or interest.

It is important to mention that these characteristics may have variations or specificities depending on the country or jurisdiction in question. In addition, contributor status implies rights, such as the right to be properly informed or to challenge tax rulings.

Tickelia - What is a contributor?

5. What is a non-contributor?

A non-contributor refers to an individual or entity that, under the tax law of a specific country or jurisdiction, is not required to pay certain taxes or is not subject to the tax system in the same way as a regular contributor. The reasons for a person to be considered a non-contributor may vary, but generally relate to:

  • Specific exemptions: The law may provide that certain individuals, organisations or activities are exempt from taxation. For example, many jurisdictions exempt charitable, religious or educational organisations from taxation.
  • Income below the minimum threshold: Individuals who have income below a certain level, considered the subsistence minimum, may not be liable to pay income tax.
  • Non-taxable activities: In the context of VAT or similar taxes, certain goods or services may be excluded or exempted. Those who are exclusively engaged in such activities may be considered non-contributors of that specific tax.
  • Special status: Some governmental entities or international institutions may have a special status that excludes them from certain tax obligations.
  • Double taxation: In the international context, a person who already pays tax in one country on certain income may not be obliged to pay tax on the same income in another country, thanks to double taxation treaties.

It is important to clarify that being a “non-contributor” for a specific tax does not necessarily exempt that person from other tax obligations. For example, a charity exempt from corporate tax may still have to pay property taxes or meet employment-related obligations.

In addition, in many cases, even if an entity is considered a non-contributor, it may still have to complete certain formalities or filings with the tax authority to validate or maintain that status. For this reason, it is essential to be aware of local legislation and to receive appropriate tax advice.

6. Are there non-contributors in Spain?

In Spain, the term “non-contributors” is not used officially or technically in the tax system. However, there are situations and contexts in which certain persons or entities are not obliged to pay tax or have special treatment in relation to a particular tax. Some of these situations are described below:

6.1 Personal Income Tax (IRPF)

  • People with incomes below certain thresholds are not obliged to file personal income tax returns.
  • Some income is exempt, such as certain public benefits.

6.2 Value Added Tax (VAT)

Some transactions are exempt from VAT, such as certain educational, medical or cultural activities. Those who carry out exclusively exempt activities are not obliged to charge or settle VAT, although they may not deduct input VAT on their purchases.

Small entrepreneurs or professionals under the Simplified Regime or the Recargo de Equivalencia Regime are subject to special VAT treatment.

6.3 Corporate income tax

Some non-profit organisations, such as those declared to be of public utility, foundations and associations, have a special tax regime with exemptions from corporate income tax.

6.4 Real Estate Tax (IBI)

Certain assets of religious entities, non-profit associations and public entities may be exempt from IBI.

6.5 Transfer Tax and Stamp Duty (Impuesto sobre Transmisiones Patrimoniales y Actos Jurídicos Documentados)

Some transactions are exempt, such as the purchase of a primary residence for people with disabilities or large families, under certain conditions.

6.6 Inheritance and gift tax

There are reductions and allowances depending on the Autonomous Community and the relationship between the donor and the donee or the deceased and the heir.

These are just some of the situations in which an individual or entity may have special treatment or be exempt from a particular tax. However, it is essential that individuals or entities review their obligations regularly and take proper advice, as tax regulations can change and vary depending on the Autonomous Community in Spain.

7. The importance of digitising business expense management

Knowing and complying with tax obligations is essential for any business wishing to operate with integrity and avoid legal complications. Tax obligations, if not handled properly, can trigger penalties, fines and even reputational problems.

Today’s businesses face an ever-changing world, with evolving regulations and increasingly complex tax systems. In this context, proper management of business expenses is not only a necessity, but a competitive advantage. Companies that have rigorous and efficient control of their expenses are in a better position to make informed decisions, optimise resources and ensure tax compliance.

This is where digital tools such as Tickelia come into their own. These technological solutions offer full automation of expense management, from the moment a cost is incurred to its final posting in the company’s system. Such tools not only bring efficiency and speed to the process, but also increase accuracy and reduce human error, ensuring a detailed and correct record of each transaction.

In addition, the challenge of handling different types of invoices, such as simplified invoices or tickets, can complicate the VAT recovery process. However, solutions such as Tickelia simplify this task by transforming these simplified invoices into full invoices, interacting directly with the supplier. This removes the administrative burden for employees and ensures that the company can maximise its VAT deductions while remaining compliant with current regulations.

In conclusion, in a business world where every euro counts and legal compliance is paramount, tools like Tickelia are indispensable allies. They allow companies to maintain robust financial control, maximise tax deduction opportunities and ensure peace of mind that they are always operating within the legal framework.

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Bea Naveros
Content writer at Inology. Graduated in Advertising and Public Relations from the Autonomous University of Barcelona.
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